ƒy[ƒ^[Eƒqƒ…[ƒuƒi[ • ƒ}ƒCƒNƒEƒ~ƒ…[ƒWƒbƒNŒค‹†Š
ƒƒfƒBƒJƒ‹EƒŒƒ]ƒiƒ“ƒXEƒZƒ‰ƒs[Eƒ~ƒ…[ƒWƒbƒN®
ธ_“IEถ—“I‚ศƒXƒgƒŒƒXว๓‚ฬŒyŒธ

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

Research Fields in Detail

Cardiovascular System

Hemodynamic

Cerebral Arteries

Blood Pressure

Heart Frequency

Heart Rate

Neurodermatitis

Neurodermatitis

High Blood Pressure

OPH Syndrome

OPH Syndrome

Fetal Heart Activity

 

 






Harmonizing Autonomous Innervation of
Cerebral Arteries
Can the Medical Resonance Therapy Music® affect Autonomous Innervation
of Cerebral Arteries?



Alexei V. Shemagonov, M.D.
Valentina N. Sidorenko, M.D., Ph.D.


  1. Belorussian State Medical Institute for Postgraduate Education,
    3, P.Brovki Str., Minsk 220714 Belarus. E-mail: alexum009@mail.ru

  2. Mother and Child Health Institute of the Ministry of Health,
    Orlovskaya St., 66. Minsk 220000 Belarus.

Abstract

To investigate the effects of Medical Reso­nance Therapy Music® (MRT-Music) upon autonomous innervation of cerebral arteries we studied slow spontaneous oscillations of cerebral blood flow (SSO) by transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD). TCD notices SSO with 3-9 cycles per minute (M-waves) and 0.5-2 cycles per minute (B-waves).
The SSO are caused by rhythmic diameter changes of the medium and small cerebral ar­ter­ies. Six patients aged 24-65 years suffering from tension headache were treated with MRT-Music®. Twelve further patients were ex­am­ined with TCD only to register SSO for fur­ther spectral analysis.



After fast Fourier transformation we registered four groups of peaks on the SSO
spectra, divided into four rhythms:
        1. 0.01 – 0.02Hz

        2. 0.02 – 0.033Hz

        3. 0.06 – 0.09 Hz

        4. 0.091 – 0.15 Hz and
          an intermediate diapason of
          0.034 – 0.059 Hz.

Spectral analysis of the SSO showed changes between initial and final amplitude peaks in all patients. In contrast to A-, B- and D-rhythms the reduction of peaks in the C-diapason was statistically significant
(31-60%, P=0.04, CI=95%) during listening to the MRT-Music®. All patients treated with the MRT-Music® reported a relief of headache while and after treatment.



Conclusion

The MRT-Music® affects the functioning of the brain struc/pictures concerning autonomous nervous system and works as a non-chemical sympatholythic.
Registration of the SSO is a useful tool to prove an influence of the MRT-Music® upon the autonomous regulation of cerebral ves­sels.


Introduction

Alteration in cerebral arterial tonus frequently underlies many types of headache. It is in­ter­est­ing to note that the cerebral arteries are less open to pharmacological interference than the other vessels in human organism. However, the cerebral arteries are plenty in­ner­vated with perivascular autonomous nerv­ous plexus. The sympathetic part of the auto­no­mous nervous system represents mainly cerebral vascular effects.
There are numerous intracerebral nuclei originating vasomotoric nerves, for instance, hypothalamus nuclei, locus coeruleus, sub­stan­tia nigra, periaqueductal nuclei, etc. Vari­ous types of mediators are implicated in the creation of vasomotoric impulses [4,5]. Un­doubt­edly, such a complex autonomous tonus regulation of cerebral arteries may scarcely be adjusted pharmacologically in a simple way.

But how can we modify an activity of the cere­bral vasomotoric nuclei? Are there any al­ter­na­tive methods except chemical drugs?

In 1964 the classical composer and mu­si­colo­gist Peter Huebner started to perform re­search into the microcosm of music.
In 1987 the Medical Resonance Therapy Mu­sic® was developed by him for medical purpose on the basis of this more than 20 years of musicological research and under the in­spi­ration of the ancient music medicine of Pythagoras, who stated that the harmony laws of the microcosm of music are also the har­mony laws of biological life. Since then medi­cal experts of different disciplines have found wide and successful clinical application of this Medical Resonance Therapy Music®.

Most of the periodic processes in nature as well as in human organism are under the in­flu­ence of the law of harmony. As chro­no­medi­cine shows even many processes con­sid­ered to be sporadic are actually periodic. Finding the harmony law of human brain ac­tiv­ity and correcting undesirable or “dis­har­mo­ni­ous” rhythms is a possible way to relieve some psychosomatic illnesses and some neu­ro­logi­cal diseases.

To investigate the effects of MRT-Music® upon the autonomous innervation of cerebral ar­ter­ies we decided to study the so called slow spontaneous oscillations of cerebral blood flow (SSO).


What are SSO?

In 1982 Rune Aaslid has put transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) into clinical prac­tice. This method allows to measure blood flow velocity in basal cerebral arteries non-invasively without any harmful effect for a long period. While monitoring arterial blood flow velocity we can see the waves in velocity trend with an amplitude of about 10-30% of the mean velocity. These waves are named slow spontaneous oscillations (SSO). Some investigators notice SSO with 3-9 cycles per minute (M-waves) and 0.5-2 cycles per minute (B-waves) [1]. They are convinced of the SSO being caused by physiological rhythmic di­ame­ter changes of the medium and small cerebral arteries [2].
The origin of these rhythms is supposed to be some brain stem nuclei. The curve of cere­bro­spi­nal fluid pressure also shows the so called B-waves within 30-120 seconds pe­ri­ods. The SSO are synchronized with in­trac­ra­nial pressure waves. The cause of fluctuating of intracranial pressure is suggested to be the oscillation of the diameter of cerebral vessels [3]. The wider the vessels diameter the higher is the level of intracranial pressure. The physiological purpose of SSO hitherto is not fully explored.
The aim of our study was to elucidate whether MRT-Music® can affect tonus and functioning of the cerebral arteries via their autonomous innervation.


Patients and Methods

Six patients aged 24-65 years (2 males and 4 females) suffering from tension headache were enrolled in this study. The patients were treated with the music preparation RRR 931 of the Medical Resonance Therapy Music®. All these patients were examined by transcranial Doppler to exclude cerebral artery diseases and to monitor peak blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery while they were lis­ten­ing to the music preparation. None of them had any neurological disease. Twelve pa­tients suffering from different neurological dis­eases excluding severe cerebrovascular dis­eases and stroke were also examined with transcranial Doppler only to monitor cerebral blood flow velocity and to register the slow spontaneous oscillations for further spectral analysis.
Right middle cerebral artery (M1-segment) was selected for monitoring in all patients. We are convinced of the fact that a peak velocity reflects the diameter of the vessels better than a mean velocity. We used Trans-Link 9900, Rimed Ltd. and Intra-View, Rimed Ltd. transcranial Doppler systems. Doppler moni­tor­ing has been performed for 10 minutes in six patients who underwent the MRT-Music® treatment as well as in the other monitored patients. Doppler monitoring was started in the 10th minute of the MRT-Music®. Spectral analysis of SSO has been performed by means of Microsoft Excel fast Fourier trans­form tool (sample size – 1024). Differences between groups were analyzed using t-test with 95% confidence interval (CI).












Results

In both groups of patients tran­scra­nial Doppler showed no evi­dences of occlusive and stenotic arterial diseases. All the patients have revealed the slow spon­ta­ne­ous oscillations of peak and mean velocities. After the fast Fourier transformation we have seen several groups of peaks on the SSO spectra (Fig.1.), which may be divided into four rhythms A,B,C, D and intermediate dia­pa­son (Tabl.1.)

Frequency of A- and B-dia­pa­sons corresponds to well known B-waves. Frequency of D- and C-diapasons corresponds to the above mentioned M-waves. In­ter­me­di­ate diapason lies between B- and C-diapasons. Amplitude of peaks in the A- and B-dia­pa­sons prevails over the other peaks. Spectral analysis of the SSO has shown changes be­tween initial and final peaks am­pli­tude in all patients, where re­duc­tion of peaks in C-diapason during the MRT-Music® listening was statistically significant in con­trast to A-, B- and D-rhythms. (Fig.2.; Table 2.) No significant changes in heart rate, breath rate and blood pressure level have been revealed while tran­scra­nial Doppler monitoring. Moreover, the patients com­plain­ing of headache before the MRT-Music® course had a headache relief after.


Discussion

Since it is not quite clear what the pace-maker of SSO rhythms is, we consider that the Medical Resonance Therapy Music® af­fects the functioning of some brain struc/pictures concerning the autonomous nervous system.

It is possible that the MRT-Music® affects these struc/pictures by means of cortex activity regu­la­tion. Our previous study revealed augmentation of C-rhythm during smoking. Taking into account the activation of sympathetic nervous system during smoking we sup­pose that the C-rhythm increase is a sequela of imbalance be­tween parasympathetic and sym­pa­thetic innervation and pre­domi­nance of the sympathetic ac­tiv­ity.

In contrary to nicotine the MRT-Music® induces the modification in the opposite direction.

Thus, we cautiously suppose that the MRT-Music® affect the autonomous regulation of the cere­bral vessels as non-pharmacological sympatholythic. The MRT-Music® regulates the tonus of the cerebral vessels by means of strengthening of equilibrium between the parasympathetic or sym­pa­thetic activity. Taking into account the significance of the imbalance of the autonomous nerv­ous system in some neurological diseases, especially in some forms of headache, the MRT-Mu­sic® may be widely used in clinical practice. Moreover, registration of the SSO is a useful tool to explain positive effects of the MRT-Music® and to prove the influence of the MRT-Music® upon the autonomous regulation of cerebral vessels.

Further investigations are needed to clarify MRT-Music® effects on the SSO. We are also going to try various types of the MRT-Music® courses for the SSO and to compare them with some phar­ma­col­ogi­cal tests.


Discussion

    1. The slow spontaneous oscillations may represent an equilibrium in a cere­bral part of autonomous nervous system concerning an innervation of the cerebral arteries.

    2. The Medical Resonance Therapy Music® affects the functioning of the brain struc/pictures concerning the autonomous nervous system.

    3. The MRT-Music® works as a non-chemical sympatholythic.

    4. Registration of slow spontaneous oscillations is a useful tool to explain positive effects of the MRT-Music® and to prove the influence of the MRT-Music® upon the autonomous regulation of the cerebral vessels.




References

  1. 1. Diehl, B., Diehl, R.R., Stodieck, S.R., Ringelstein, E.B. (1997)
    Spontaneous oscillations in cerebral blood flow velocities in middle cerebral
    arteries in control subjects and patients with epilepsy. Stroke 28: 2457-2459.

  2. 2. Diehl, R.R., Diehl, B., Sitzer, M., Hennerici, M. (1991)
    Spontaneous oscillations in cerebral blood flow velocity in normal humans and
    in patients with carotid artery disease. Neuroscience Letter 127: 5-8.

  3. 3. Mautner, D, Haberl, R.L., Dirnagl, U. et al. (1989).
    B-waves in healthy persons. Neurological Research 11:194-196.

  4. 4. Motavkin, P.A., and Tchertok, V.M. (1980).
    Gistofiziologia sosudistykh mekhanizmov mozgovogo krovo'obraschienia.
    Moscow: Meditzina.

  5. 5. Owman C. (1979) Neurogenic vasodilatation mediated by the
    autonomic nervous system.
    Triangle 18:89-99.

  6. Alexei V. Shemagonov, M.D.
    Belorussian State Medical Institute for Postgraduate Education,
    3, P.Brovki Str., Minsk 220714 Belarus. E-mail: alexum009@mail.ru

  7. Valentina N. Sidorenko, M.D., Ph.D.
    Mother and Child Health Institute of the Ministry of Health
    Orlovskaya St., 66. Minsk, 220000 Belarus.

With kind permission of AAR EDITION INTERNATIONAL
© 1998- SCIENTIFIC MUSIC MEDICINE | Contact

Subject to change in the interests of scientific advancement.